What is Hydraulic Braking System and How It Works?

Hydraulic Braking System

Here is the complete guide about Hydraulic Braking System. Here we provide Hydraulic Braking System working principle, Constructional Details and Applications etc.

A hydraulic braking system transmits brake-pedal force to the wheel brakes through pressurized fluid, converting the fluid pressure into useful work of braking at the wheels. A simple, single-line hydraulic layout used to operate a drum and disc brake system is illustrated.

What is Hydraulic Braking System

Most present day automobiles have brakes on all 4 wheels, operated with the aid of using a hydraulic system. The brakes can be disc kind or drum kind. The the front brakes play a more element in preventing the auto than the rear ones, due to the fact braking throws the car weight ahead directly to the the front wheels.

Many cars therefore have disc brakes, which might be usually extra efficient, on the the front and drum brakes on the rear. All-disc braking structures are used on a few pricey or high-overall performance automobiles, and all-drum structures on a few older or smaller automobiles.

Working of a Hydraulic Braking System

1. Drum Hydraulic Brake

When the conductor controls are applied in a car fitted with hydraulic brakes of the drum type following the process-

  • The connecting rod linked among button and piston of a master cylinder shifts because of the movement or actuation of the brake button which in flip presses the piston of the grasp cylinder inside the master cylinder similar to a scientific syringe.
  • The compression of brake fluid inside the master cylinder requires location because of this movement of the piston inside the master cylinder, which in flip offers the transformation of mechanical energy into hydraulic pressure.
  • This extraordinarily condensed air liquid from the master tank passes inside the reservoir and this hydraulic pressure is transferred from the master tank to the brake tank.
  • Due to its improved stress, when this high-pressure brake fluid joins the wheel cylinder or drum cylinder, movement calls for location in the cylinder piston, which in flip extends the floating brake footwear linked to it.
  • Because of the improvement of the brake footwear, frictional touch is created among brake footwear and drum lining (the spinning drum portion), which in flip transforms the vehicle’s kinetic power into thermal energy and in the end reasons flooding.

Single Acting Drum Type Braking – The operation of the single-acting drum type hydraulic pump is precisely the same as above, the driving power is obtained in this type of single wheel steering or a single couple of tires.

Double Acting Drum Type Braking- Due to the use of the hybrid master cylinder, the high-pressure brake liquid from the master cylinder is spread in two ways, i.e. both the tires in bicycles and all the tires in vehicles (see post on master cylinder).

2. Disc Hydraulic Brakes

When the driver applies brake in a automobile equipped with disc type hydraulic brakes the process involved is equal as drum hydraulic bakes up to when the excessive strain brake fluid enters the brake lines but differ a piece after that –

  • The high pressure brake fluid from the brake lines enters the disc calliper cylinder of a disc brake system.
  • This high pressure brake fluid cause’s motion withinside the calliper cylinder’s piston which in turn causes the motion of the brake pad connected to the piston in the calliper.
  • Due to this motion of brake pad the clamping of the rotating disc rotor takes location and because of this frictional touch among brake pads and the rotating disc rotor, conversion of automobile’s kinetic power into warmth power takes location which in flip stops or de boost up the automobile.

Single Acting Disc Type Braking– The working of single acting disc kind hydraulic braking is precisely equal as referred to above, on this kind of braking single wheel or a single pair of wheels gets the braking force.

Double Acting Disc Type Braking- In double acting disc type hydraulic brake the high pressure brake fluid from the master cylinder is distributed in 2 directions, i.e. both the wheels in bikes and all wheels in cars due to the use of tandem master cylinder ( refer to the article on master cylinder).

Constructional Details

Types Of Hydraulic Braking System

The Hydraulic Braking System are two types.

1. Based on the frictional contact system, there are two kinds of hydraulic pumps

(i)drum brake or inner hydraulic valve expansion.

(ii) Hydraulic disk brakes or internal hydraulic brakes.

2. Based on the brake force allocation-there are two kinds of hydraulic brakes-

(i)single-acting hydraulic pumps 

(ii) dual-acting hydraulic pumps

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On the Basis of Frictional Contact Mechanism

1. Drum Hydraulic Brake or Internal Expanding Hydraulic Brakes-

The components engaged in the drum hydraulic braking system

  • Master cylinder–The smooth motor and piston configuration (refer to the master cylinder document) transforms the mechanical power from the brake pedal into the air stress.
  • Brake pedal or brake lever-This brake pedal or brake lever is connected to the master frame by mechanical cord or linking rod in the identical internal steering scheme as different brake pedal or brake lever.

The brake pedal is connected in this type of manner to the piston of the master cylinder that the wheel motion forces the piston back and forth inside the
master cylinder.

  • Drum cylinder-Another car in the drum brake drum is linked to the brake pads, the high-pressure brake liquid from the brake rows reaches this cylinder. 
  • Brake rows-These are the hollow high-pressure metallic pipe that links the master cylinder with the drum cylinder inside those high-pressure brake fluid brake
    traces from the master cylinder streams that are accountable for further brake action.
  • Brake fluid reservoir–it’s far the smooth tank comprising brake liquid this is connected to the master cylinder the use of brake tubes.
  • Brake drum (refer to article on drum brake) – It is housing of drum cylinder , brake shoes and spring , the outer part of the drum rotates with the wheel and inner part consisting the brake shoe and cylinder remains stationary.

2. Disc  Hydraulic Brakes or External Contracting Hydraulic Brakes-

Hydraulic disk components and hydraulic drum brake components are nearly the same as brake pedals or brake levers-precisely similar to the drum brakes
listed above.

  • Brake rows similar to the pen brake, however the master valve is connected to the disk calliper valve here.
  • Master cylinder- Similar to drum vehicles Brake liquid reservoir-Similar to drum brake.
  • Disc rotor- The plastic disk equipped with the engine core in such a way that it rotates with a vehicle’s engine is the ground that makes frictional contact with the pedal shoe to prevent or de-accelerate the car.
  • Disc caliper- It is a small stationary component fitted on a disk much like a clamp, inner which there’s a housing of brake shoes and hydraulic cylinder, while the brakes apply the brake shoes within the caliper contracts and make frictional contact with the rotating disc for braking purposes.

On the Basis of Brake Force Distribution

All the components of unmarried acting hydraulic brakes and double-acting hydraulic brakes whether it’s a drum type single acting brake or disc type single acting brake are equal as mentioned above, the only difference is kind of master cylinder used which decides the brake force distribution i.e. In motorcycles- single wheel braking or double wheel braking, In cars- wheel braking or all wheel braking. So let’s just see that in detail.

1. Single Acting Hydraulic Brakes-

In single acting type of hydraulic brakes, simple single cylinder type of master cylinder is used which provides limited hydraulic pressure which can only be transferred in single direction i.e. In motorcycles- only single wheel, In cars – only single pair(front or rear) of wheels.

2. Double Acting Hydraulic Brakes-

In double acting type of hydraulic brakes, double or tandem master cylinder is used which provides better brake pressure that can be transferred in double direction i.e. each wheels in motorcycles and all the wheels in cars.

Why We Need  Hydraulic Braking System

Prior to the hydraulic braking system the kind of braking system used was mechanical braking system, so now the query get up if we already have mechanical braking system so why hydraulic braking system? Let’s simply locate out.

  • As the braking of an automobile car is a very crucial safety part so the responses from the brake pedal to the very last braking must be very quick which was a failure of a mechanical kind braking system and is very well achieved by the hydraulic braking system which provides quick braking.
  • The brake pressure generated through hydraulic braking system is very excessive as compared to the mechanical braking that is a very important factor for today’s amazing and hyper series of vehicles.
  • Frictional wear and tear in case of mechanical braking system was very high due to the involvement of many shifting components, which could be very well reduced to the optimum level with the introduction of the hydraulic braking system which has very much less shifting components in comparison to the mechanical one.
  • Brake failure chances in the case of hydraulic braking system is very less as compared to the mechanical system due to the direct connection among the actuator ( brake pedal or lever) and the brake disc or drum.
  • Design complexity in the case of mechanical braking turned into very excessive that is decreased with the introduction of the hydraulic braking system which has a simple and easily assembled design.
  • The maintenance in the case of mechanical braking system was high due to the involvement of complex and greater quantity of  member that is not a problem with the hydraulic braking system as it has a simple layout with much less shifting parts.


  • Drum Type Hydraulic Brakes-Four wheels like Tata Ace are utilized in a few low speeds.
  • Disc Type Hydraulic Brakes-They are normally utilized in nearly all vehicles along with Maruti Suzuki swift, Hyundai i20 etc., in addition to in bicycles along with Bajaj pulsar 180, Ktm Duke 390, etc.
  • Single Acting Hydraulic Brakes-Pulsar 180 the front valves are single working.
  • Dual Hydraulic Brakes Acting–All the above-mentioned vehicles.


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