Types of Braking System in Automobile

Here you can get Types of Braking System. Here we provide Braking System working principle, Classifications, Advantages, and Disadvantages etc. A brake is a mechanical device which inhibits motion.

In an automobile vehicle, a braking system is an arrangement of various linkages and components (brake lines or mechanical linkages, brake drum or brake disc , master cylinder or fulcrums etc) that are arranged in such a fashion that it converts the vehicle’s kinetic energy into the heat energy which in turn stops or de accelerate the vehicle.

The conversion of kinetic energy into heat energy is a function of frictional force generated by the frictional contact between brake shoes and moving drum or disc of a braking system.

What is Braking System

Brake is a mechanical device. From a moving system, it absorbs energy and inhibits motion. It is used for reducing the speed of a wheel or axle. It works through friction. The maximum decelerating effect obtained is called peak force, which is the main characteristic of the braking system. The temperature of brakes gets high when they are typically used and this may result in failure of the system.

Braking System – Types

Classification of Braking System

As we have already discussed the evolution of braking system from vintage carts to modern cars, from vintage carriages to modern trucks has given us various different purpose braking systems which are classified on the basis of various needs and purposes of an automobile vehicle. so let’s just discuss them-

1. On the Basis of  Power Source

The power source which carries the pedal force applied by the driver on brake pedal to the final brake drum or brake disc in order to de accelerate or stop the vehicle the braking systems are of 6 types-

  • Mechanical braking system
  • Hydraulic braking system
  • Air or pneumatic braking system
  • Vacuum braking system
  • Magnetic braking system
  • Electric braking system

1. Mechanical Brakes-

It is the kind of braking system wherein the brake pressure carried out through the driving force at the brake pedal is transferred to the final brake drum or disc rotor via the various mechanical linkages like cylindrical rods, fulcrums, springs etc. In order to de accelerate or stop the vehicle.

Mechanical braking mostly used in scooters, motor vehicles, and motorcycles where small power is required. It is essential in manufacturing power transmission applications, material handling, etc.

2. Hydraulic Brakes- 

It is the sort of braking system wherein the brake pressure implemented with the aid of using the driver on brake pedal is first transformed into hydraulic pressure by master cylinder (for reference read article on master cylinder) than this hydraulic pressure from master cylinder is transferred to the final brake drum or disc rotor thru brake lines.

  • Instead of mechanical linkages, brake fluid is utilized in hydraulic brakes for the transmission of brake pedal pressure in order to stop or de accelerates the
    vehicle.
  • Almost all the motorcycles and cars on the road nowadays are equipped with the hydraulic braking system due to it high effectiveness and high brake pressure
    producing capability.

3. Air or Pneumatic Brakes-

It is the types of braking system in which atmospheric air via compressors and valves is used to transmit brake pedal pressure from brake pedal to the very last drum or disc rotor.

  • Air brakes are specially utilized in heavy vehicles like busses and trucks because hydraulic brakes fails to transmit excessive brake pressure via more distance and also pneumatic brakes generates better brake pressure than hydraulic brake that is the want of the heavy vehicle.
  • The possibilities of brake failure is less in case of pneumatic brakes as they’re generally equipped with a reserve air tank which is available in motion whilst there may be a brake failure because of leakage in brake lines.
  • High cease vehicles nowadays are the use of air brakes system due to its effectiveness and fail evidence ability.

4. Vacuum Brakes-

It is the traditional kind of braking system in which vacuum within the brake lines causes brake pads to transport which in turn finally stops or de accelerate the vehicle.

  • Exhauster , main cylinder , brake lines , valves together with disc rotor or drum are the main components that mixes together to make a vacuum braking device
  • Vacuum brakes had been utilized in old or traditional trains and are replaced with air brakes now days due to the fact of its much less effectiveness and gradual braking.
  • Vacuum brakes are cheaper than air brakes however are much less secure than air brakes.

5. Magnetic Brakes– 

In this types of braking system, the magnetic field generated by permanent magnets is used to cause the braking of the vehicle.

  • It works on the principle that when we pass a magnet through a cooper tube, eddy current is generated and the magnetic field generated by this eddy current provide magnetic braking.
  • This is the friction less braking system thus there is less or no wear and tear.
  • This is the advanced technology in which no pressure is needed to cause braking.
  • The response to the braking in this is quite quick as compared to other braking systems.

6. Electrical Brakes-

It is type of braking used in electric vehicle in which braking is produced the use of the electrical vehicles that is the main source of power in electric vehicles, it is similarly divided into three types-

(i) Plugging Brakes-When the brake pedal is pressed in the electric vehicle equipped with plugging braking, the polarity of the motors changes which in turn reverses the direction of the motor and causes the braking.

(ii) Regenerative Braking- It is the type of electrical braking in which at the time of braking the motor which is the main power source of the vehicle becomes the generator i.e. when brakes are applied, the power supply to the motor cuts off due to which the mechanical energy from the wheels becomes the rotating force for the motor which in turn converts this mechanical energy into the electric energy which is further stored in the battery.

  • Regenerative braking saves the energy and are widely used in today’s electric vehicles.
  • Tesla Model-S provides the most effective regenerative braking.

(iii) Dynamic or Rheostat Braking- It is the type of electrical braking in which resistance provided by the rheostat causes the actual braking, in this type a rheostat is attached to the circuit that provides the resistance to the motor which is responsible for de acceleration or stopping of the vehicle.

On Frictional Contact Basis

1. Drum Hydraulic Brake or Internal Expanding Hydraulic Brakes-

The components engaged in the drum hydraulic braking system

  • Master cylinder–The smooth motor and piston configuration (refer to the master cylinder document) transforms the mechanical power from the brake pedal into the air stress.
  • Brake pedal or brake lever-This brake pedal or brake lever is connected to the master frame by mechanical cord or linking rod in the identical internal steering scheme as different brake pedal or brake lever.

The brake pedal is connected in this type of manner to the piston of the master cylinder that the wheel motion forces the piston back and forth inside the
master cylinder.

  • Drum cylinder-Another car in the drum brake drum is linked to the brake pads, the high-pressure brake liquid from the brake rows reaches this cylinder. 
  • Brake rows-These are the hollow high-pressure metallic pipe that links the master cylinder with the drum cylinder inside those high-pressure brake fluid brake
    traces from the master cylinder streams that are accountable for further brake action.
  • Brake fluid reservoir–it’s far the smooth tank comprising brake liquid this is connected to the master cylinder the use of brake tubes.
  • Brake drum (refer to article on drum brake) – It is housing of drum cylinder , brake shoes and spring , the outer part of the drum rotates with the wheel and inner part consisting the brake shoe and cylinder remains stationary.

2. Disc  Hydraulic Brakes or External Contracting Hydraulic Brakes-

Hydraulic disk components and hydraulic drum brake components are nearly the same as brake pedals or brake levers-precisely similar to the drum brakes
listed above.

  • Brake rows similar to the pen brake, however the master valve is connected to the disk calliper valve here.
  • Master cylinder- Similar to drum vehicles Brake liquid reservoir-Similar to drum brake.
  • Disc rotor- The plastic disk equipped with the engine core in such a way that it rotates with a vehicle’s engine is the ground that makes frictional contact with the pedal shoe to prevent or de-accelerate the car.
  • Disc caliper- It is a small stationary component fitted on a disk much like a clamp, inner which there’s a housing of brake shoes and hydraulic cylinder, while the brakes apply the brake shoes within the caliper contracts and make frictional contact with the rotating disc for braking purposes.

On the Basis of Brake Force Distribution

All the components of unmarried acting hydraulic brakes and double-acting hydraulic brakes whether it’s a drum type single acting brake or disc type single acting brake are equal as mentioned above, the only difference is kind of master cylinder used which decides the brake force distribution i.e. In motorcycles- single wheel braking or double wheel braking, In cars- wheel braking or all wheel braking. So let’s just see that in detail.

1. Single Acting Hydraulic Brakes-

In single acting type of hydraulic brakes, simple single cylinder type of master cylinder is used which provides limited hydraulic pressure which can only be transferred in single direction i.e. In motorcycles- only single wheel, In cars – only single pair(front or rear) of wheels.

2. Double Acting Hydraulic Brakes-

In double acting type of hydraulic brakes, double or tandem master cylinder is used which provides better brake pressure that can be transferred in double direction i.e. each wheels in motorcycles and all the wheels in cars.

On Application Basis

1. Service Brake or Foot Brakes-

It is the kind of brakes in which the brakes are carried out while the driver presses the brake pedal mounted inside the cockpit or on the foot area of the car together along with his foot, this pedal pressure carried out through the driving force is in addition expanded and sent to the braking drum or disc both through mechanical linkages or through hydraulic stress which in flip reasons braking.

  • In cars foot operated brakes are used and in motorcycles the combination of foot and hand operated brakes are used.

2. Hand Brake or Parking Brake–

This kind of brakes are also known as emergency brake as they may be independent of the main service brake, hand brakes includes a hand operated brake lever which is connected to the brake drum or disc rotor thru the steel cable.

  • When hand brake lever is pulled, tension is created in the metallic rod which in turn actuates the brake drum or disc rotor mechanism and final braking occurs.
  • Hand brakes are generally used for solid parking of the car both on flat road or slope this is why it’s also known as parking brakes.

How does your car brake system work

Cars have brakes on all 4 wheels that are operated through a hydraulic system. The brakes are both a disc type or drum type. Many cars have 4-wheel disc brakes – despite the fact that a few have discs for the the front wheels and drums for the rear.

Since the lion’s share of stopping a car’s ahead momentum relies on the the the front brakes, the more effective disc brakes are deployed at the the front wheels;  much less high-priced drum set-up provides adequate, however greater value powerful, help in halting a automobile’s motion.  The car brake system works in some ways:

  1. Your foot pushes on the brake pedal and the pressure generated through your leg is amplified several times by mechanical leverage. It is then amplified further through the motion of the brake booster.
  2. A piston movements into the cylinder AND it squeezes hydraulic fluid out of the end.
  3. Hydraulic brake fluid is forced around the entire braking system within a network of brake lines and hoses.
  4. Pressure is transmitted similarly to all 4 brakes.
  5. The force creates friction among brake pads and disc brake rotors that is what stops your vehicle.

Applications

  • Mechanical brakes- Cars like Ford Model Y and motorcycles like Bajaj pulsar 180cc.
  • Hydraulic brakes- Modern automobiles like Maruti Suzuki speedy and motorcycles like KTM Duke 390.
  • Air brakes – Volvo buses and various heavy vehicles
  • Vacuum brakes- old trains
  • Magnetic brakes- Bugatti veyron and diverse hyper automobiles.
  • Electric braking- Tesla Model S Use regenerative kind electric braking.
  • Drum brake- Old Maruti 800 and Tata 407
  • Disc brake- All present day automobiles like Hyundai i20.
  • Hand brake and foot brake– All vehicle vehicles.
  • Single acting – TVS App ache 180 the front disc.
  • Dual acting- All four wheel cars and trucks.

Advantages

  • Equal braking effort to all the four wheels.
  • Less rate of wear (due to absence of joints compared to mechanical brakes),
  • Force multiplication (or divisions) very easily just by changing the size of one piston and cylinder relative to other.

Disadvantages

  • Even slight leakage of air into the breaking system makes it useless.
  • The brake shoes are liable to get ruined if the brake fluid leaks out.

Braking System Of FAQs

1). What is the function of braking systems?

A braking system is a mechanical device that allows in accelerating or decelerating the speed of the device. It inhibits movement through absorbing energy from the system.

2). What are the types of brake assist systems?

The types of brake assist systems are hydraulic brake assist system and mechanical braking assist system.

3). What is Pascal’s law?

Blaise Pascal states that when the pressure applied to a fluid(confined in compressible fluid) in a system can transmit equal pressure in all directions throughout the fluid. This law was given by Blaise Pascal in 1647-48.

The formula for pascal’s law is,

P = F/A

Where F= force, A = area, and P= pressure.

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